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    As prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the Vatican office responsible for preserving Catholic doctrine and evaluating according to canon law the warrant for disciplinary action against clergy, Ratzinger earned a reputation as a hard-liner. His father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook (before she married). He has said his unit was attacked by Allied forces that year, but he did not take part in that battle because a finger infection had kept him from learning to shoot. Two years later, he earned his doctorate at the University of Munich. In 2008 Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. Benedict stayed there while renovations were made to a convent, Mater Ecclesiae, in the southwest corner of Vatican City, which became his residence. He was captured by American soldiers and held as a prisoner of war for several months. In a public letter written in February 2018, Benedict stated that he was nearing the end of his life. Elected Archbishop of Munich, 24 March 1977. Ratzinger was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. One of Benedict's final acts as a pope was a tweet to his Twitter following. For more than a quarter of a century, Peter Seewald (1954) has accompanied Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger/Benedict XVI, the first pope emeritus in centuries. Angelus. The youngest of three children, Ratzinger was six years old when the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933; his parents, who were staunch Catholics, were hostile to the regime. The election of a new Pope is often accompanied by conjecture over his choice of papal name; it is widely believed that a Pope chooses the name of a predecessor whose teachings and legacy he wishes to continue. He wrote 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' in 1905. Ratzinger entered preparatory seminary in 1939. With Francis there are obvious differences, but Guerriero emphasizes the personal bond, affection, and promised loyalty of Benedict to his successor. Europe. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Ratzinger was sent home and then called up again before deserting in late April 1945. Award-winning British actor Benedict Cumberbatch is known for playing the titular detective of the BBC's 'Sherlock' and the sorcerer Doctor Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009; 2010; 2011; 2012; 2013; Apostolic Constitutions Spare me any more reverential coverage about Pope Benedict XVI and his decision to give up his office. Retired Pope Benedict XVI broke his silence to reaffirm the value of priestly celibacy, just as Pope Francis weighs whether to allow married men to be ordained. Americas. The New York Times bestselling final volume in the Pope’s Jesus of Nazareth series, detailing how the stories of Jesus’ infancy and childhood are as relevant today as they were two thousand years ago. The Pope is… wait, let me confirm… yes, the Pope is a Catholic. After World War II, he committed suicide to escape capture. This page is dedicated to demonstrating that the past and present beliefs and actions… St Peter's Square Sunday, 16 November 2008 . In 2010 allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools—particularly in Germany, Ireland, and the United States—brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. He is the first pope from the Americas. Select from premium Pope Benedict Xvi of the highest quality. Born: 16-Apr-1927 Birthplace: Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion Nationality: Germany Executive summary: Pope Emeritus Ordained 29 June 1951. His papacy faced several challenges, including the effects of the scandal beginning in the late 1990s surrounding the church’s handling of sexual abuse by priests. On a personal level, I wish him well. AKA Joseph Alois Ratzinger. Author of. Quotations by Pope Benedict XVI, German Clergyman, Born April 16, 1927. After the war, Ratzinger continued his education in the seminary; he was ordained a priest in June 1951. The Vatican also denounced the charge that, as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Benedict had been responsible for the Vatican's policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. BENEDICT XVI . Alienated by the student protests at Tübingen, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Former pope Benedict is seriously ill, reports say. “I can only say that with the slow waning of my physical forces, I’m on a pilgrimage towards home," he wrote, adding: "It is a great gift for me to be surrounded, on this last stretch of this sometimes tiring road, by a degree of love and goodwill that I could never have imagined.”. Pope Benedict has stated that he chose his papal name to honor both Saint Benedict, the patron saint of Europe, and Pope Benedict XV, who, as pope during World War I, worked tirelessly to end the war. Das Christentum und die Weltreligionen. Ratzinger defended and reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality and inter-religious dialogue. After earning his teaching license in 1957, he taught dogma and theology at the higher school of philosophy and theology in Freising until 1959, later moving to the University of Bonn (1959–69) and also teaching at universities in Münster (1963–66) and—at the invitation of the theologian Hans Küng—Tübingen (1966–69). In February 2013 Benedict announced that he would resign at the end of that month, citing age and health concerns. In November of that same year, in an act of outreach to conservative Anglicans, Benedict approved an apostolic constitution, or special decree, that allowed Anglican clergymen and laypersons to join the Roman Catholic Church while maintaining some Anglican traditions. The homily he delivered as part of the funeral proceedings for the pope also increased his stature. Ratzinger’s father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook. In 1981, Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. One of the more progressive figures at the council, Ratzinger opposed those who hoped to limit reform. "Unemployment was rife," he wrote in his memoir, Milestones. He was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. He went on to state, "In today's world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of St. Peter and proclaim the gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognize my incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry entrusted to me... For this reason, and well aware of the seriousness of this act, with full freedom, I declare that I renounce the ministry of bishop of Rome, successor of St. Pope Benedict XVI - A Controversial Speech. He deserted in April of that year and was captured by American forces and held prisoner for a brief period. He is best known for his rigid views on Catholicism and topics such as birth control and homosexuality. In 2007 Benedict approved the decisions of the International Theological Commission, an advisory panel to the Vatican, that the traditional teaching of limbo was “unduly restrictive” and that unbaptized infants could be saved. His final public address in St. Peter’s Square drew a crowd of more than 50,000. Despite his reputation, even his harshest critics recognized his intelligence and his ability to discuss controversial matters in an objective and disinterested spirit. Benedict walked through the doorway right after Francis, gingerly negotiating the two steps with the help of a cane and his longtime assistant. Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned as pope in 2013, made the comment in response to a question about what he had meant at his 2005 inauguration, when he urged Catholics to … Battles among the political parties set people against one another.". Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In 1998, he became vice dean of the College of Cardinals and was elected dean in 2002. His father was a determined anti-Nazi, Ratzinger wrote. His most recent book, Benedict XVI: A … Benedict XVI served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. The crowd responded with cheers and applause. Friendship with Jesus: Pope Benedict XVI Talks to Children on Their First Holy Communion. Benedict XV was Pope from 1914-1922, so it's curious that the resignation came at the eight year mark of 2005-2013. Last Testament: In His Own Words. Benedict XVI shocked the world in February when he became the first pope to resign in almost 600 years. He will continue to be known as Benedict XVI in his retirement and has been given the title of pope emeritus. In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. "War reparations (from World War I) weighed heavily on the German economy. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/pope-benedict-xvi. Or should I say, the Pope is the Catholic. In March 1977, he was named archbishop of Munich and Freising and, three months later, was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. He was condemned to hang as a war criminal in 1946 but took his own life instead. Benedict made a controversial decision in January 2009 to revoke the excommunications of four bishops who in 1988 had been consecrated, without papal sanction, by Marcel Lefebvre (1905–91), an ultraconservative French archbishop who was excommunicated with them. Pope Benedict XVI. For more than two decades, Ratzinger was the pope’s closest adviser. Ratzinger’s university years, however, brought about a transformation of his views. Glaube - Wahrheit - Toleranz. Benedict XVI $4.19 - $14.56. He made his first trip to the Western Hemisphere, visiting Brazil, where he canonized Father Antonio Galvão (1739–1822), the first native-born Brazilian saint. Dear Brothers and Sisters, The Word of God this Sunday the second to the last Sunday of the liturgical year invites us to be vigilant and hardworking, in the expectation of the Lord's return at the end of time. BENEDICT XVI. Americas. We strive for accuracy and fairness. The Vatican also denounced as “false and calumnious” the charge that as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Benedict had been responsible for a policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. After about a year in the anti-aircraft unit, Ratzinger was drafted into the regular military. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Pope emeritus Benedict XVI will celebrate Mass with his ailing brother on the feast of the Sacred Heart during his first full day in Germany Friday. Pope Benedict XVI, whose given name is Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, was born and raised in Marktl Am Inn, Bavaria, Germany. Later, he moved to the University of Muenster (1963-66) and took a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen. He condemned liberation theology and suppressed more-liberal theologians such as the Brazilian Leonardo Boff and the American Charles Curran. His choice of the name Benedict XVI recalled St. Benedict of Nursia, the patron saint of Europe and the founder of Western monasticism, as well as earlier popes of the same name, including Benedict XV (1914–22), who sought to mediate between the belligerents during World War I. Benedict XVI immediately took steps to continue John Paul’s dialogue with Judaism and Islam and with other Christian churches. Among them are Introduction to Christianity (1968); Called to Communion: Understanding the Church Today (1996); The Spirit of the Liturgy (2000); Jesus of Nazareth (2007); Jesus of Nazareth, Vol. Later that year he addressed the first Catholic-Muslim Forum, a three-day conference of Catholic theologians and Islamic scholars hosted by the Vatican to promote improved understanding between the two religions. II (2012); and Last Testament: In His Own Words (2016). On November 25, 1981, he was made prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by his friend Pope John Paul II (1978–2005), whom he had known well since 1977. Benedict XVI $3.99 - $15.73. His family moved frequently among villages in rural Bavaria, a deeply Roman Catholic region in Germany, as the Nazis strengthened their stranglehold on Germany in the 1930s. He was elevated to the papacy in 2005. 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