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    Foreign powers also intervened in Russia in an attempt to force the collapse of Bolshevism. The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the failure of the Kerensky Provisional Government nearly led to the complete disintegration of the Russian state. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Main article: October Revolution (Central Victory)In the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the for… By May 1918, the Legion was distributed along the Trans-Siberian Railway but found itself unable to move due to transport shortages and Bolshevik red tape. Central Powers intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions starting in 1918. The Poles chose to attack in Ukraine in the spring of 1920 as Soviet Russia lay nearly prostrate following two years of civil war. Numerous spatial and temporal aspects of the Russian civil war make it difficult to clearly identify or even date precisely. Some of these groups established counter-revolutionary regimes, usually based in a particular city or region. Like other internecine conflicts, the Russian Civil War was marked by periods of confusion and great division, shifting loyalties and intense propaganda. All of this was just a prelude to the decisive year of 1919. That the Whites used similar methods to the Bolsheviks did not help their cause. These short-lived White governments were based in Ekaterinburg, Novorossiysk, Priamuraye, Pskov, Sevastopol and Transbaikal. Set during the Civil War between the Reds and the Whites that followed the 1917 revolution in Russia Director: Nikita Mikhalkov | Stars: Yuriy Bogatyryov, Anatoliy Solonitsyn, Sergey Shakurov, Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov Votes: 2,644 6. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. Most foreign powers refused to recognise the legitimacy of the Bolshevik regime, dealing instead with White generals in exile. The Magazine Basic Theme by bavotasan.com. Free shipping . The White armies fought as separate units and were unable or unwilling to coordinate their strategy or offensives. The White Army opposed the communists. Ufa fell in June, and Kolchak’s armies retreated through Siberia, harassed by partisans. These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. The family of Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, who had been deposed when the communists came … Origins of the War: Reds and Whites Form Harrison earned his Undergraduate and Master’s degrees from Georgetown University, where he specialized in Russian Area Studies. Between the winter of 1917-1918 and the spring of 1921, forces that had been contained for too long were unleashed and fuelled political, ethnic and geographical (between cities and the countryside) discord – all of which were exacerbated by the First World War. Their opponents, which included a broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, were known as the Whites. On April 28 the Red Army’s counteroffensive began. Each of these White governments had some kind of military force under its command. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. These phony historians pick out certain facts and ignore others to give you an inaccurate view of what really happened. Their victory can be attributed to several factors. The Russian Civil War was one of the most fateful of the 20th century's military conflicts, a bloody three-year struggle whose outcome saw the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime within the former Russian Empire. shipping: + $20.00 shipping . An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Army’s Combat Operations, the third part of a three-volume official Russian history of the conflict. Many White generals, while capable soldiers, either had political ambitions of their own or distrusted those of their fellow White commanders. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material on this site without express and written permission from the author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. There was opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but it intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). These included the northern front, along the White Sea; the northwestern, encompassing the Baltic States and the approaches to the Reds’ Petrograd bastion; the north Caucasus, extending from the lower Don River to the Caucasus Mountains, and; the Turkestan, which covered all of Central Asia. The largest of these White contingents was Anton Denikin’s Volunteer Army in southern Russia, which at its peak in mid-1919 numbered around 40,000 men. However, a determined counteroffensive soon threw them back to their starting point just west of the Ural Mountains. This new government, the Ufa Directorate, was led by a five-man committee, three of whom were Socialist-Revolutionaries. By Richard W. Harrison. This essentially concluded the Russian civil war, although there remained isolated centers of resistance in Central Asia and the Far East. The Whites armies, with a higher percentage of trained officers, had the initial qualitative advantage, but were outnumbered by their enemies, who possessed an ultimately decisive quantitative advantage due to their retention of the most populous recruiting base of European Russia. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as … There were several other White governments that lasted just a few weeks or months before collapsing, fleeing the Red Army or merging with other governments. URL: https://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/russian-civil-war/ Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Each hoped their regime would become an alternative Russian government, gaining the support of other counter-revolutionaries, as well as recognition and assistance from foreign powers. 4. On May 14th, the Legion began to rebel, killing several Bolsheviks and seizing control of Chelyabinsk, a town not far south of Ekaterinburg, where the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family were being held. Before taking an in-depth look at the continuity between the two conflicts, we need to first establish the boundaries of this multifa… 3. 2. Fighting intensified in the summer of 1918, when the action spread to the eastern periphery of the Bolsheviks’ territory. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of … Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. Immediately after the two Revolutions of 1917, the Civil War broke out in the former Russian Empire. The Whites advanced rapidly at first and even captured Kazan’, along the Volga River. A loose confederation of a… There were also significant White forces in Siberia and the east (Kolchak) and in Russia’s north-west (Yudenich). Some misguided historians believe the US intervention in the Russian Civil War was an imperialistic adventure. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. 5. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Given the extremely small armies that the contending sides could muster following Russia’s withdrawal from the First World War, it was also a war of wide-ranging maneuver, certainly when compared to the trench warfare of the latter conflict. Anti-Bolshevik Russian soldiers in 1919. A Russian Imperial Army unit that served in World War I, the Czech Legion contained volunteers of Czech and Slovak heritage who enlisted to defend their homeland. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson With the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, the Bolsheviks became not just traitors to the war but a political threat to democratic-capitalist nations. Opposition began to grow and intensify into a fully-fledged counter-revolutionary movement. All Rights Reserved. British, French and American units were all sent to various Russian ports to support White forces while Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok in the east. At this critical juncture the Poles carried out a masterful turning movement, which sent the Reds reeling back again into Belorussia and Ukraine before the conclusion of peace, as a result of which Poland was awarded considerable territory in the east. The Reds quickly set about building a new Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, albeit with a great deal of help from a large contingent of former Czarist officers. US Involvement in Russian Civil War 1918-1920. The Russian Civil War by Mawdsley, Evan, 1945-Publication date 2007 Topics History - General History, History, History: World, Europe - Russia & the Former Soviet Union, Revolutionary, History / General, Military - General, Russia (Territory under White armies, 1918-1920). The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921: An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Arm. Several foreign powers who opposed the Bolshevik regime also contributed troops, weapons, supplies and intelligence to the Whites. Abraham Lincoln – President, Emancipator… and Tyrant? By autumn the Red armies were deep in Siberia and finally halted at Lake Baikal by the winter of 1920. After losing the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) to the alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire, Russia faced another challenge a few years later. By late 1918, World War I had come to an end and nobody wanted to commit large troop numbers to another major conflict. They were joined by other groups, including former tsarist officers and loyalist militias. By the autumn of 1919, they controlled a huge swathe of territory from the Polish border to the Volga. German and Russian soldiers mingle on eve of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918. 1. The struggle pitted two irreconcilable parties against each other. The Russian Civil War was a pervasive and often intense conflict. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. There had been opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but this intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). How and why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? In November, a group of Cossack officers, encouraged and backed by the British, arrested the Ufa executive and forced them into exile. Richard W. Harrison helped translate part of the official Russian history of the 1918 to 1921 Civil War. After this coup d’etat, command of the government passed to Alexander Kolchak, a former tsarist naval commander. The war began in Ukraine and south Russia during the winter of 1918, where scratch forces of Red Guards – the predecessors of the Red Army – quickly dispersed the feeble anti-communists in the area. The Russian Civil War raged from 1918 until the start of 1921. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. The Whites also lost important generals at critical times, such as Kornilov (killed in battle in March 1918) and Kolchak (executed in January 1920). World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. Yet another White government was based in Arkhangelsk, a White Sea port city, 700 miles north-west of St Petersburg. Date published: August 15, 2019 The Civil War was fought on several fronts by different leaders and groups, each with different political ideals and objectives. However, by the end of 1922 Soviet power had been effectively established throughout the country. Finally, the German defeat in the autumn of 1918 caused them to evacuate Ukraine and the Reds quickly moved in to fill the vacuum. London: Longman, 1996. Red Victory: History of the Russian Civil War … →. 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