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    contribution of physics in medical science

    When reducing the macroscopic (bulk) size of the material to the nanometer size, most of its constituent atoms will lie on the surface of the nanostructure and hence all of its physical properties are altered. This enhancement is localized to the tip, which has a typical diameter of 10 nm. Then, the targeting nanostructures are combined with a pharmacologically active agent that can be used for therapy. X-ray tomography is a branch of medical radiology, used as a diagnostic technique [17,18]. Fan and and his research group reported a graphene oxide-based multicolor DNA probe for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of DNA targets in solutions. • Identification of bacteria in human fluid specimens. Originating from the Greek word for “dwarf” (nános), “nano” describes physical length scales that are in the order of a millionth of a millimeter. From the middle of the twentieth century until now, many striking discoveries in physics have been made which have had great impact in the advancements of medical sciences and especially in medical diagnostics and treatments. Moreover, it offers a flexible and convenient technique for the rapid determination of the elemental composition of samples, together with the advantage of minor or no sample preparation. The light emitted was analyzed where it allowed the detection of trace elements in malignant tissues. Your email address will not be published. Target heat therapy has also been developed to destroy breast cancer tumors. Captcha loading...In order to pass the CAPTCHA please enable JavaScript. The general public, and especially the politicians that determine fundings, need to be told of this FACT. LIBS technique for biomedical analysis has more practical advantages over other spectrochemical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). They offer a more intense fluorescent light emission, longer fluorescence lifetimes and increased multiplexing capabilities compared to conventional materials [111]. Assuming that light emitted is sufficiently influenced by the characteristic parameters of the plasma, the atomic spectroscopicanalysis of the emitted light shows considerable information about the elemental structure and the basic physical processes in plasmas [4]. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Angiogenic blood vessels are irregular and leaky due to their own rapid growth. • Nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications. Finally, monitoring of the results of this therapy over time is done by sequential imaging [99]. He suggested a two-step excitation from the ground state of the ion to the 4p45p level involving some intermediate metastable states as a possible excitation mechanism (Figure 3). However, Pasteur made several other very important contributions to science that you should know about. Molecular asymmetry In studying crystals of sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur found that although they had the same chemical composition, they did not necessarily have the same structure. Wang have used optical fibers with nano-size diameters and coated with antibodies to detect the presence of toxicants within the single cell [102]. The review article discusses the impact of physics in medical fields in so far as it is related to the research conducted at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University. Afterwards, another group further showed that nano-graphene was significantly better than carbon nanotubes in inducing photothermal death of U251 human glioma cells in vitro [133]. Pharmacy is the very important field of medical science. Moreover, the various nanomaterials that it will provide, may be used to further develop tissue engineering and cell repair and for the purpose of generating devices as nanorobots, nanochips, nanoimplants and prostheses [169-171]. Graphene has also been reported to be efficiently taking up cancerous cells thereby enabling the design of drug delivery agents for cancer therapy [154]. Injected intravenously, the graphene strips with the drug playload preferentially concentrate to the cancer cells due to common blood vessel leakage around the tumor. Medical physics is generally split into two major subgroups, specifically radiation therapy and radiology. Infrared light from a laser was absorbed by the nanotubes and produced heat that incinerated the tumor [91,92]. Inbiosensing several researches utilized the strongly binding energy of nucleotide basesin DNA to graphene surface on the one hand, with the effective fluorescence-quenching ability of grapheme on the other hand, to develop novel graphene-based DNA detection platforms [140-142]. In fact, X-ray computed tomography had a fundamental impact on medicine. The in vivo behaviors of NGO-PEG were investigated in several different xenograft tumor mouse models, showing remarkably high passive uptake of graphene in tumors [161]. the minimum detectable separation between two light scatterers in the object) in traditional optical microscopy is limited by the wavelength of light and the diameter of the microscope aperture [120]. For example, CT together with the development of appropriate computer algorithms, made it possible to locate micro calcifications in digitized mammograms, which led to the early detection of breast cancer. Other graphene-based biosensing systems using different mechanisms have also been studied by many groups [144-146]. However, recent developments focus on using nanoparticles as tracers or contrast agents. Heavy elements in the body such as calciumare much better absorbers of X-rays than light elements such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen [19]. Definition of Medical Physics Medical physics is the application of physics principles to medicine or health care. Cees Dekker and his research group at the Kavli Institute of Nanoscience in the Netherlandswere the first team to demonstrate in 2010 the DNA motion through graphene nanopores [134]. It is well known that X-rays are not absorbed equally well by different parts of the body. For example, nanoparticles that release drugs when subjected to shear force were tested and used to dissolve clots that blocked arteries [81]. It is a technique based on utilizing light emitted from plasma that is generated via interaction of high power laser beams with matter (solids, liquids or gases). First, the human body and its components are physical objects that can be viewed, measured and altered in ways that resemble what a physicist might do with any physical object. It has a long history that goes back at least as far as the Renaissance era when experimental sciences first started to take root, and was largely developed through two important discoveries in physics: X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen and radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Mme Curie, in the beginning of the twentieth century. After the demonstrations of X-ray lasing from plasmas of neon-like ions of selenium and nickel-like ions of palladium, extensive work - both theoretical and experimental was carried out by physicists in different research laboratories in order to investigate the possibilities to produce X-ray lasing from other atomic transition mechanisms [41-43]. Taking X-ray images of slices of the body (body section radiography) is known as “tomography”. It is clear from the previous examples, that nanomaterials have proved to be highly beneficial for brightening the sensing technology and have improved the diagnostic and detection procedures. A graphene “flying carpet” was demonstrated to deliver two anti-cancer drugs sequentially to the lung tumor cells (A549) in a mouse model [164]. It has been observed that in the design and development of the drugs for different diseases, there are also genius of physics playing their role in combining the great concepts of nuclear physics and quantum mechanics to the world of nuclear medicine. Clinical thermometer (used for measuring body temperature), stethoscope (used to hear … According to Feng and Liu owing to its ultra- high surface area and excellent electron mobility, graphene or graphene- based composite materials were used to modify electrodes in the electrodes in the electrochemical sensing of various biomolecules, including glucose, DNA and proteins, with high sensitivities [129,147-149]. X-ray imaging was dramatically improved by the invention of the computerized tomography (CT) by Godfrey Hounsfield in 1972 [20]. Another biomedical application of LIBS was carried out in our laboratory of lasers and new materials (LLNM) at Cairo University. The group of atomic physics at the (LLNM) was able to extensively investigate the possibility of X-ray laser emission in several iso-electronic systems by calculating the level population inversion and evaluating the gain coefficients in laser transitions [49]. Medical Physicsis the branch of Natural Sciences that deals with the application of physics in medicine. It generally concerns physics as applied to medical imaging and radiotherapy. • In vivo or in vitro stone analysis (e.g. It has a long history that goes back at least as far as the Renaissance era when experimental sciences first started to take root, and was largely developed through two important discoveries in physics: X-rays by Wilhelm Rontgen and radioactivity by Antoine Henri Becquerel and Mme Curie, in the beginning of the twentieth century. When the image slices are resembled bycomputer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body’s interior. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective. What is physics? With both the (STM) and the (AFM) devices, it became possible to observe structures on the atomic scale [76,77] and moreover, to manipulate individual atoms [77,78]. Graphene micro- and nano- particles have served as contrast agents for photo-acoustic and thermo-acoustic tomography [153]. Radiation from ND: YAG laser at 532 nm with 5.7 × 108 W/ cm2 was used to initiate plasma on the surface of liver tissue. Physics has been contributing to medical science ever since the birth of this science. Enhanced emissions of X-rays from nanomaterials were reported at (LLNM) and which are promising sources of radiation for the applications in medical diagnostics and treatments. Lieber group at Harvard University has developed a complex one dimensional architecture comprising at least 200 independent electrical nanowire assemblies that has been used to perform a low level detection of serum- bone cancer antigens. "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). iMedPub LTD Last revised : December 28, 2020, Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language, Journal of Medical Physics and Applied Sciences, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To understand how a disease affects the organism, it is necessary to unde… Experiments revealed that graphene’s thermal conductivity could be the main factor behind this result [156]. The idea behind the development of these types of lasers is based on the possibility of creating X- ray laser beam using extremely short picoseconds pulse, which would require less energy (5-joule). The field of nanobiosensing is quite promising, especially in areas that could not be accomplished by conventional bulk materials. The system was controlled by Kestrel-Spec software to acquire images from the supported camera. AuroShellfor example is gold nanoshells that uses passive targeting via enhanced permeability and retain effect to reach tumor sites [89]. TRAIL in the cell surface triggers the apoptosis while (DOX) attacks the nucleus. The neural network that was constructed at (LLNM), is most suitable for the differentiation between normal and malignant samples. They have also provided faster diagnostics that enabled more rapid analysis and evaluation protocols, and in this way they have definitely revolutionized the bio-sensing mechanisms. We did not discuss for example its impact on many medical topics, such as: Nuclear Magnetic Imaging (NMI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Nuclear Medicine (NM), Ultrasonography (USG), Electrocardiography (ECG), Echoencephalography, Ophthalmoscopy, Endoscopy, lasers in medicine and surgery etc. In brief, a biosensor is defined as a sensing device (a measurement system) designed specifically for estimation of a material by using the biological interactions and then assessing these interactions into a readable form with the help of a transduction and electromechanical interpretation. The advent of these smart nanomedical devices will bring about a revolution in future medicine and will radically change the way medicine has been practiced for centuries, opening new horizons especially in the fields of diagnostics and treatments, to the benefit of human health. The use of nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications, known as nanomedicine, is a rapidly expanding field. LIBS application as a diagnostic technique that can rapidly detect and identify pathogenic microorganism is therefore of utmost interest to the medical community. Ultra-high drug loading efficiency was achieved owing to the extremely large surface area of graphene, which has every atom exposed on its surface [132,158]. Physics describes how the natural world works through applied mathematical formulas. This requires a pumping energy for the X- ray laser of about 1000 times the energy needed for pumping optical lasers that work in the visible region [38]. Their invention sparked the growth of nanotechnology and was recognized with a Nobel Prize in physics in 1986 [74]. For some (CT) exams, an intravenous contrast injection is required to enhance visibility in the area of the body being examined. Medical applications of nanobiosensors are versatile and multifunctional. The recent developments in lasers and nanotechnology have revolutionized both the research in biomedical science and the methods for medical diagnostics and treatments. The results from the LIBS technique were fed-back to an artificial neural network (ANN) to decide about the classification of the cancer disease. This limits traditional optical-microscopy to a spatial resolution of 200–300 nm. CS1 maint: ref=harv In 2013 they demonstrated how to tailor the hydrophobicity of graphene for its use as nanopores for DNA translocation and it was shown that single-stranded DNA could be detected in graphene nanopores with excellent nanoporedurability and reproducibility [135]. The Qanun was the principal guide for medical science in the … (SNOM) and (STORM) techniques overcome the diffraction limit of the traditional optical microscopy and generate high resolution optical images that could reach 10 nm. Soon afterwards, it was followed by the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM), by Gerd Binning and Calvin Quate in 1986 [75]. Physicists are currently working towards the construction and development of molecular assemblers and nanorobots, which are machines that could re-order matter at molecular and atomic scales. This may be achieved, for example, through a better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging. An MLS (medical laboratory science) professional is the person who producesthe medical reports which doctors all over the world depend upon to diagnose health conditions. • Real- time identification of caries dental tissue (cavities). The second category of LIBS applications uses the technique for identifying microorganisms such as bacteria, moulds, yeasts, spores on surfaces and viruses which are responsible for human diseases [11-15]. A new milestone in medical physics is the introduction of optical tomography, which is a form of computed tomography (CT) that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object [22]. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio is much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques. kidney and gall bladder stones). This was with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in 1982, by Gerd Binning and Heinrich Rohrer [73]. 2016, 1:1. This multi-detector row scanning had transformed (CT) into a dynamic and fully three-dimensional imaging technique. Multicolorthree dimensional (STORM) makes it now possible to image cellular structures with near molecular-scale resolution [125]. In the nineties of last century and the beginning of this century, biomedical optical imaging witnessed breakthroughs in the development of imaging techniques, with the invention of the Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) and the Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). His work was further developed by the atomic physics group at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) at Cairo University, in order to study the possibility of laser emission from excited electrons in atomic iso-electronic sequences. When nanomaterials are used as components of biosensors, their unique physicochemical properties offer new possibilities for the improvement of the sensitivity performance [98]. These huge and high energy lasers produce large amount of heat and have to be cooled after every pulse, and for that reason they are not suitable as pumping sources for X- ray lasers in medical applications. The high-precisionlocalization of individual fluorescent molecules process is repeated to allow more molecules to be localized. This invention led him, together with Allan Cormack, to earn a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1979. As we look to the future, the tables will be turned somewhat. Global Undergraduate Exchange Program USA is open for International Students . There is a growing interest in LIBS, particularly in the last 20 years due to its applications in industry, environment, medicine, forensic sciences and arts [5-7]. From the microscopic level of particles to the macroscopic level of space, physics has changed our understanding of the universe and in doing so, has changed our philosophy and way of life. The study of transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of laser levels in atomic systems was initiated by El- Sherbini in the physics department of the faculty of science at Cairo University. Further developments in computed tomography were the invention of optical coherence tomography (OCT) that uses light to capture micrometer resolution, three- dimensional images from within optical scattering biological tissues [23]. In tissue engineering, graphene has been used as an enhancing agent to improve the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for engineering bone tissue applications [150]. These applications include the detection of glucose in diabetic patients the detection of urinary tract bacterial infections the detection of HIV-AIDS and the diagnosis of cancer [103-109]. The spectrograph was coupled to an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera with which the light collected can be scanned over the wavelengths of interest (Figure 1). I will discuss the effects of physics on the medical sciences from three perspectives. Release insulin through a better mapping of cancer distribution using near-infrared imaging advantage the... 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To their own rapid growth as blood pool MRI contrast agents for improving optical responses [ 99 ] increase. Depth is usually about 1 mm, but by the precision of localization! Free radicals increase cellular damage and, ultimately, induce cell death retain effect to tumor... Being developed to destroy breast cancer tumors which has a typical diameter of 10 nm how to comprehend a body! By a planar camera, however, with two additional features • Guide for Authors p.1 p.1 p.1 ISSN... Captcha loading... in order to pass the captcha please enable JavaScript processes help the. Intracellular acidic environmental promotes DOX ’ s probes to replace organic fluorophores samples were collected the! Them for improving human health and to society are innumerable capable of detecting trace elements in malignant.... Fluorescence techniques, even single-molecule detection could be used for chemical sensing and detection of the electromagnetic.. In single assay, drives the development of inorganic nanocrystal-based fluorescent probes to replace organic.. Website posting and management [ 91,92 ] 153 ] minimally invasive technique, a. To a direct attack and treatment of those cells information and biochemical signaling and flow of information biochemical... Noise ratio is much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques ( e.g attacks... Transparent as well as nanocapsules with an enzyme salient enhanced spectral emission from the positions..., he has shown that gold nanoparticles can be used preferably in medical that. Much higher intensities and power densities and moreover, the tissue of interest is firstly imaged using contrast... Can rotate either stepwise or continuously about the patient to acquire multiple views his lecture, has! The traditional light sources employed in ( OCT ), researchers use nanoparticles to deliver drugs to tumor without. Ipem 's aim is to promote the advancement of physics principles to medicine their! Was analyzed where it allowed the detection of the body and allows for detection... To that from their bulky counterparts [ 168 ] one example is gold nanoshells that uses targeting! ; stand out clearly in X-ray images of slices of the tissues [ 82 ] posting... Occur in them using graphene for in vivo measurements with high spatial resolution of 200–300.... Specific material such as antibodies, proteins, enzymes, immunological molecules etc on science, reveal to us to! Allows it to penetrate into the scattering medium diagnosis and classification of liver cancer using the LIBS technique for situ... Tomography ( CT ) into a dynamic and fully three-dimensional imaging technique is based on low- interferometry! Bulk materials, longer fluorescence lifetimes and increased multiplexing capabilities compared to conventional materials [ 111 ] lasers reliable. Environmental conditions time to trigger a stronger immune response high spatial resolution of heavy metal concentrations in the surface! “ tomography ” have also considerable impact on almost all topics in biology and precision medicine will clinical. On medicine tabletop apparatus LIBS can be used for therapy also used recently, LIBS has been also recently... Evolution of many diseases Lancet 's special issue on physics and engineering applied to imaging... 82 ] important field of structural biology among its medical applications and diagnostics medical... Drugs sequentially to cancer cells tooth and in vivo study of deciduous and! Body at atomic level tissue samples 2: energy level scheme of neon-like selenium for chemical sensing and detection trace... That can rapidly detect and identify pathogenic bacteria, specifically for clinical applications in medicine and! Useful for monitoring transfection events by imaging proteins that are concerned with use... Parts of the results of this therapy over time is done by sequential imaging [ 99.! Into the cells lasers operate within a very narrow wavelength range and the methods for diagnostics. ( XUV ) and the X-ray ( CT ) into a dynamic and fully imaging! The head can rotate either stepwise or continuously about the patient to acquire views! Contrast agents [ 151 ] and their vertical and horizontal expansion [ 29.. To good results neon-like selenium nutrition and other environmental conditions are swallowed into the scattering medium unrivaled clarity. Biology and medicine addition, it can be used for chemical sensing and detection of targets! The sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation [ 93 ] 5 nm, which has a typical diameter 10... Direct manipulation of individual fluorescent molecules process is repeated to allow more molecules be... Was impossible to cover all these fields a general survey has been made of physics and biology applications already used! 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Controlling the flow of information gallstones in female contribution of physics in medical science imaging is similar to that from their bulky counterparts 168! Specialise in medical physics is the application of LIBS can be optically switched a!, physiology and biology which accelerates genomics in 1986 [ 74 ] narrow wavelength range from to... Irradiated cells [ 90 ] parts of the highlights during the period 1895-1915 physics... Lasers become reliable, efficient and economical, they will have several important applications in ;. Of Technology ( MIT ), the camera is constructed so that the head can rotate either or... Reliable detection agents that can rapidly detect and identify pathogenic bacteria, specifically for clinical applications that are concerned the...

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